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When are you Officially a Senior Citizen?
Category: GENERAL
Tags: senior citizen elderly old age social security medicare

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Hello Community, I was asked what is the official age for senior citizen status. Well here the accepted definition.

60 is the "magic number.

As we know, Senior have there own unique challenges, and JMCC will bring valued information to assist those who are in the transition from mature adult to elderly ( ummm, sounds old LOL).

For those senior who want to meet other seniors

visit  http://www.yesnow.org/

there are thousands of other seniors wanting to connect.

Elderly persons, usually more than sixty or sixty-five years of age.

People in the United States who are more than sixty years of age are commonly referred to as senior citizens or seniors. These terms refer to people whose stage in life is generally called old age, though there is no precise way to identify the final stage of a normal life span. People are said to be senior citizens when they reach the age of sixty or sixty-five because those are the ages at which most people retire from the workforce.

U.S. law and society recognize the special needs of senior citizens. The most important aid to senior citizens is the Social Security program.

More than twenty-five million Americans receive old-age benefits each month under federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, and those payments amount to almost $20 billion a year. Senior citizens who are age sixty-five or older qualify for a full benefit payment by having been employed for the mandatory minimum amount of time and by having made contributions to Social Security.

A person may retire at age sixty-two and receive less than full benefits. There is no financial need requirement to be satisfied.

Because of enormous financial pressures on the Social Security program, changes have been made that will push the retirement age higher in the coming decades.

Persons born before 1950 can retire at age sixty-five with full benefits based on the average income during working years.

Those born between 1950 and 1960 can retire at age sixty-six with full benefits. For those born in 1960 or later, full benefits will be awarded for retirement at age sixty-seven.

Senior citizens are also protected by the Medicare program. This program provides basic health care benefits to recipients of Social Security and is funded through the Social Security Trust Fund. Medicare is divided into a hospital insurance program and a supplementary medical insurance program.

The hospital insurance plan covers reasonable and medically necessary treatment in a hospital or skilled nursing home, meals, regular nursing care services, and the cost of necessary special care. Medicare also pays for home health services and hospice care for terminally ill patients.

Medicare's supplementary medical insurance program is financed by monthly insurance premiums paid by people who sign up for coverage, combined with money contributed by the federal government.

The government contributes the major portion of the cost of the program, which is funded out of general tax revenues. Persons who enroll pay a regular monthly premium and also a small annual deductible fee for any medical costs incurred during the year above the amount funded by the government. Once the deductible has been paid, Medicare pays 80 percent of any medical bills.

Some warm-weather states such as Arizona and Florida have senior citizen retirement communities. These planned communities allow only senior citizens to buy or rent housing. Many seniors feel more independent and secure in a retirement community than in an ordinary neighborhood. Legal provisions in a retirement community's development plan are incorporated into the deeds of all property owners, prohibiting, for example, children from residing in the community. In this way, the special nature of the neighborhood is preserved.

However, not all senior citizens wish to retire from the workforce. Amendments to the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) (29 U.S.C.A. § 621 et seq.) have eliminated the age of mandatory retirement for most employees and have made the act applicable to more workers. The ADEA itself prohibits employers from discriminating on the basis of age

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Cultural Marketing
Category: GENERAL
Tags: cultural marketing

 

A specific type of marketing that is geared towards promoting a message to a certain group of potential purchasers from a particular culture or demographic.
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 1, 2005
When Does Culture Matter in Marketing?
 
STANFORD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS—You need a new computer. You log on to the Web and spend time thoughtfully perusing various vendor sites to determine the best fit for your needs. You think you've made up your mind. But then you're whizzing down the highway and pass a billboard touting a different computer. You have only a few seconds to absorb the advertising message, but you're swayed in ways you hadn't anticipated. What's going on?
 
According to new research, it may have to do with your cultural biases. Or, to be more specific, the instances in which culture matters—and the times it doesn't.
 
When does culture influence consumer purchasing decisions?
 
This is a complex and under-examined issue recently explored by Donnel Briley of the University of Sydney and Jennifer Aaker, the General Atlantic Professor of Marketing at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
 
Four experiments found that culture-based differences show up when information is processed in a cursory and spontaneous manner.
 
So when you passed that roadside billboard, you were likely to be influenced by advertising that appealed to your particular culture. But when you had the time to deliberate more—by examining information on the Web, for instance—attempts by advertisers to rely on cultural factors tended not to be as successful.
 
For example, in a pilot study, Anglo and Asian American students at a California university with an ethnically diverse population were asked to view advertisements for Welch's grape juice.
 
Some participants were instructed to give their immediate reactions to the advertisements, while others were told to think more carefully before evaluating the effectiveness of the ads.
 
Half of the ads were "promotional" in their appeal. That is, they focused on the benefits that could be gained by drinking the juice—e.g., "Welch's grape juice can lead to higher energy levels, is great-tasting as well as energizing, and is fun to drink."
 
The other ads had "preventive" appeals: They highlighted problems that could be avoided by drinking Welch's—e.g., "Welch's grape juice can reduce the risk of some cancers and heart disease, helps keep arteries clear so that blood can flow freely, and is healthy to drink".
 
The results were instructive. When participants gave their immediate reactions to the advertisements, Asian American participants heavily favored the preventive messages; Anglo Americans had the opposite reaction, rating the promotional messages as more effective.
 
This tallied with the researchers' theories that Americans, who value achievement, accomplishment, and independent thinking, would focus on the positive consequences of their purchasing decisions.
 
On the other hand, Chinese subjects, who tend to value protection and security, and have more interdependent ways of viewing the world, were expected to concentrate on the negative consequences of their actions or decisions. All this bore out when subjects gave only a cursory glance at the ads.
 
Yet this disparity disappeared when participants engaged in more thoughtful deliberations. There were simply no significant differences in how the two groups rated the effectiveness of the advertising when asked to be more careful in their evaluations.
 
 
Cultural vs. Personal Knowledge When Making Consumer Judgments
 
So what determines whether culture matters? A key factor is the extent to which you draw upon cultural versus personal knowledge when making purchasing decisions.
 
General cultural knowledge includes implicit theories about the world we live in that are largely shared by the members of our society. But in addition to this shared set of ideas, we also have personal knowledge that can conflict with accepted, culturally derived practices. For example, a boy growing up in China may generally accept the importance of his relationships with others, and therefore seek to keep harmony with family members. But more personal knowledge—such as being exposed to pictures of American cultural icons like Green Day or Madonna—may lead him to sometimes wear clothes that his parents don't like. In other words, when pressured to form a quick judgment, we generally rely on cultural norms as a "default." But when making a thoughtful deliberation, we're more likely to engage in an internal debate, and waver.
 
In the research, this pattern held across product categories, and in two-country (Hong Kong vs. United States) comparisons. Taken altogether, these results underscore the idea that culture simply does not exert the constant, unwavering effect on consumer judgments as previously thought.
Implications and Significance of the Research
 
This research has important implications for brand and global marketing efforts by consumer-oriented companies.
 
After all, notions about cultural differences are often the basis for international marketing communications as well as global brand management strategies. Indeed, the perceived importance of cultural issues has been increasing, fueled by new technologies that allow marketers to reach consumers across country boundaries. Marketers are spending increasing amounts of time and effort trying to understand subtle cultural differences. Witness the efforts of Nike, IBM, and Google.
 
But for a message to be effective, marketers must understand not only how to tailor a message to a particular culture but when such cultural-values-based messages are most effective. For example, this research suggests that marketing communications that hinge on culture-specific values might work best when advertisements draw brief, focused attention (e.g., online banner ads, roadside billboards).
 
Additionally, this notion that culture sometimes guides consumer judgments and behaviors and at other times does not could be helpful in understanding conflicting findings in previous research. For example, although numerous studies have found cultural differences matter enormously to consumers, in other studies such differences sometimes fail to appear. Such failures tend to offer uninteresting findings and often remain unpublished. The present research suggests that this may be due to differences in the conditions under which participants provide their responses.
 
Researchers also may want to consider the distinction between personal and cultural knowledge. When will personal knowledge override socio-cultural norms? Answers to such questions will further illuminate the psychology of consumers across cultural contexts and shed insight on what types of global marketing efforts may be most effective.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multicultural_marketing
 
Multicultural marketing is the practice of marketing to one audience of a certain ethnicity.
 
Multicultural marketing uses cultural touch points such as language, traditions, celebrations, religion and any other concepts that may relevant to the particular cultural audience.
 
It is the promotion of a brand's product or service targeted to one or more multicultural groups or to an ethnically diverse consumer base.
 
The day of "one size fits all" is gone with the advent of multi cultural marketing,
 
The opportunity cost of not creating a multicultural marketing strategy can translate into staggering losses for businesses, through the misinterpretation of marketing messages, the loss or damage to the brand image or, worse, the risk of customer alienation and defection.
 
Multicultural marketing grew out of careful marketing research, which showed that different ethnic and demographic niches do not always favorably respond to mass market advertising.
 
Companies capitalize on on a well thought out multicultural marketing strategies to cater to their diverse customer base.
 
Another angle to multicultural marketing would be the concept of social stratification is all human societies, each society is divided into different social classes- a multicultural marketing strategy may be targeted to them as well.
Contents
 
    1 Multicultural Marketing: Through Advertising"
    2 Significance of Multicultural Marketing
    3 Skills required
    4 Steps Involved in Formulating a multicultural strategy
    5 Pioneers
   
 
Multicultural Marketing: Through Advertising"
 
Advertisements are considered as forms of social communication that resonate the cultural values of a society.
 
At the same time, advertising creates and produces new cultural values and meanings by influencing group identities and reinforcing stereotypes.
 
So advertising is not only influenced by cultural values but also acts as an agent influencing cultural values.
 
From a marketing perspective, advertisers have been more interested in the effects of culture on consumers’ response to advertising.
 
People tend to live within their cultural boundaries; i.e., people have their own cultural values and norms, which influence the way they think, feel and act. People in the same ethnic groups tend to share the language, customs, values, and social views.
 
These shared values (i.e., culture) influence people’s cognitive (beliefs and motives), affective (emotion and attitude) and behavioral (purchase and consumption) processes.
 
Based on this notion of “advertising as a mirror,” cultural values and standards are implanted in ads in such a way that consumers can “see themselves” and identify with the characters in the ads and feel affinity with the brands
 
 
Significance of Multicultural Marketing
 
Multicultural marketing has an impact on the core business strategies of any business
 
   
Innovation: Charting a multicultural marketing strategy goes beyond identifying communications programs and promotions tailored to these markets. Multicultural marketing is an engine for innovation.
   
Growth: If multicultural segments are growing at higher rates than the general population, it implies that they are also consuming most products at higher rates than the rest
 
   
Globalization: Once a corporation acknowledges the value of multicultural marketing and begins investing in research and development of products and new marketing capabilities, these can be leveraged in the global environment.
 
Skills required
 
It is suggested that the following skills are required in the field of multicultural marketing.[1]
 
    To spot patterns that allow subcultures to be grouped together, so that a common marketing strategy may be extended to several subcultures in a group (“transcultural” marketing)
   
To develop a distinct marketing strategy for each subculture, if there is a significantly distinct cultural dimension that is important to the specific culture (multicultural marketing)
   
To further segment audiences in a subculture, if needed, in terms of cultural affinity, cultural identity or acculturation level (tactical adaptation within a subculture)
   
To develop parameters of culturally acceptable marketing stimuli; and
   
To establish a protocol for measuring cultural effectiveness of the stimuli.
 
This process is also known as ethnic marketing.[2]
Steps Involved in Formulating a multicultural strategy
 
Multicultural market planning must begin with
 
1) Understanding cross-cultural differences in communication patterns, values, and behavior, followed by
 
2) Evaluating the need for adjustments in strategy and tactics,
 
3) Assessing cultural affinity among ethnic audiences,
 
4) Segmenting the ethnic audiences based on the level of cultural affinity,
 
5) Exploring culturally acceptable/unacceptable, sensitive/insensitive advertising messages among the identified segments,
 
6) Developing the most effective and efficient advertising tactics targeted to the identified segments, and finally
 
7) Evaluating the effectiveness of advertising campaigns among different target segments.
 
An ethnic marketing strategy is developed around the values and attitudes distinctive to a particular ethnic group, and generally includes the following aspects:
 
   
Identification and collaboration with community leaders
   
The promotion of culture, symbols and celebrations important to a precise target
   
Enhancing and focusing on the cultural uniqueness of ethnic group
 
Ethnic marketers focus on customizing a new message for each target group that considers all of the above, as opposed to simply translating a standard message into different languages.[3]
 
Ethnic marketing strategies fall into two general categories – target groups with a low level of ethnic identity (or ethnicity) and target groups with a high level of ethnic identity.
 
In a market with low levels of ethnic identity the strategy more closely follows the rules of traditional marketing.
 
A target market with high degree of ethnicity is usually found among first generation immigrants with a limited knowledge of the local language and a strong use of their mother language, and these markets are often located in areas with high ethnic density.
 
Pioneers
 
Pioneers in the field of multicultural marketing include Madam C. J. Walker, African-American businesswoman, hair care entrepreneur,[4] Procter and Gamble,[5] Mc Donald's,[6] Pepsi cola and Benetton,[7] and the entrepreneur Francesco Costa[8] with My Own Media[9] and ISI Holding in the foreigner services sector,[10] Joseph Assaf with Ethnic Business Awards, Alan M. Powell CEO of AP & Associates
 
 
Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/cultural-marketing.html#ixzz2CmvUK26P
http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/research/mktg_aaker_cultureinfluences.shtml

 

Related Information
 
When Does Culture Matter? Effects of Personal Knowledge on the Correction of Culture-Based Judgments
Donnel Briley and Jennifer Aaker
Journal of Marketing Research, forthcoming
-- 
Alice LaPlante
Want and Needs How do you Identify?
Category: GENERAL
Tags: maslow wants needs

 

Hello Community,

Many times the question is asked " What is the difference between a want and a need?.

Here is a great place to start in identifying the difference.

 

 

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (expanded)

 

1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualization.

 

 

The original hierarchy of needs of five-stage model  Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

maslow hierarchy of needs pyramide

 

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