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DNA Ancestry, Your legacy is etched in time
Category: GENERAL
Tags: dna african melungeon multi-racial multi-cultural


Hello JMCC community, I found this article to most interesting. BE WHO YOU 
ARE. Yes, even today, our society, still place value on the physical and not the 
person characther. That's ok, the truth still "glow bright in the dark". 
25 May 2012
DNA study seeks origin of Appalachia's Melungeons
By TRAVIS LOLLER | Associated Press  
NASHVILLE, Tenn. (AP) — For years, varied and sometimes wild claims
have been made about the origins of a group of dark-skinned
Appalachian residents once known derisively as the Melungeons. Some
speculated they were descended from Portuguese explorers, or perhaps
from Turkish slaves or Gypsies.
Now a new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy attempts to
separate truth from oral tradition and wishful thinking. The study
found the truth to be somewhat less exotic: Genetic evidence shows
that the families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of
sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central
European origin.
And that report, which was published in April in the peer-reviewed
journal, doesn't sit comfortably with some people who claim Melungeon
"There were a whole lot of people upset by this study," lead
researcher Roberta Estes said. "They just knew they were Portuguese,
or Native American."
Beginning in the early 1800s, or possibly before, the term Melungeon
(meh-LUN'-jun) was applied as a slur to a group of about 40 families
along the Tennessee-Virginia border. But it has since become a
catch-all phrase for a number of groups of mysterious mixed-race
In recent decades, interest in the origin of the Melungeons has risen
dramatically with advances both in DNA research and in the advent of
Internet resources that allow individuals to trace their ancestry
without digging through dusty archives.
G. Reginald Daniel, a sociologist at the University of
California-Santa Barbara who's spent more than 30 years examining
multiracial people in the U.S. and wasn't part of this research, said
the study is more evidence that race-mixing in the U.S. isn't a new
"All of us are multiracial," he said. "It is recapturing a more
authentic U.S. history."
Estes and her fellow researchers theorize that the various Melungeon
lines may have sprung from the unions of black and white indentured
servants living in Virginia in the mid-1600s, before slavery.
They conclude that as laws were put in place to penalize the mixing of
races, the various family groups could only intermarry with each
other, even migrating together from Virginia through the Carolinas
before settling primarily in the mountains of East Tennessee.
Claims of Portuguese ancestry likely were a ruse they used in order to
remain free and retain other privileges that came with being
considered white, according to the study's authors.
The study quotes from an 1874 court case in Tennessee in which a
Melungeon woman's inheritance was challenged. If Martha Simmerman were
found to have African blood, she would lose the inheritance.
Her attorney, Lewis Shepherd, argued successfully that the Simmerman's
family was descended from ancient Phoenicians who eventually migrated
to Portugal and then to North America.
Writing about his argument in a memoir published years later, Shepherd
stated, "Our Southern high-bred people will never tolerate on equal
terms any person who is even remotely tainted with negro blood, but
they do not make the same objection to other brown or dark-skinned
people, like the Spanish, the Cubans, the Italians, etc."
In another lawsuit in 1855, Jacob Perkins, who is described as "an
East Tennessean of a Melungeon family," sued a man who had accused him
of having "negro blood."
In a note to his attorney, Perkins wrote why he felt the accusation
was damaging. Writing in the era of slavery ahead of the Civil War,
Perkins noted the racial discrimination of the age: "1st the words
imply that we are liable to be indicted (equals) liable to be whipped
(equals) liable to be fined ... "
Later generations came to believe some of the tales their ancestors
wove out of necessity.
Jack Goins, who has researched Melungeon history for about 40 years
and was the driving force behind the DNA study, said his distant
relatives were listed as Portuguese on an 1880 census. Yet he was
taken aback when he first had his DNA tested around 2000. Swabs taken
from his cheeks collected the genetic material from saliva or skin
cells and the sample was sent to a laboratory for identification.
"It surprised me so much when mine came up African that I had it done
again," he said. "I had to have a second opinion. But it came back the
same way. I had three done. They were all the same."
In order to conduct the larger DNA study, Goins and his fellow
researchers — who are genealogists but not academics — had to define
who was a Melungeon.
In recent years, it has become a catchall term for people of
mixed-race ancestry and has been applied to about 200 communities in
the eastern U.S. — from New York to Louisiana.
Among them were the Montauks, the Mantinecocks, Van Guilders, the
Clappers, the Shinnecocks and others in New York. Pennsylvania had the
Pools; North Carolina the Lumbees, Waccamaws and Haliwas and South
Carolina the Redbones, Buckheads, Yellowhammers, Creels and others. In
Louisiana, which somewhat resembled a Latin American nation with its
racial mixing, there were Creoles of the Cane River region and the
Redbones of western Louisiana, among others.
The latest DNA study limited participants to those whose families were
called Melungeon in the historical records of the 1800s and early
1900s in and around Tennessee's Hawkins and Hancock Counties, on the
Virginia border some 200 miles northeast of Nashville.
The study does not rule out the possibility of other races or
ethnicities forming part of the Melungeon heritage, but none were
detected among the 69 male lines and 8 female lines that were tested.
Also, the study did not look for later racial mixing that might have
occurred, for instance with Native Americans.
Goins estimates there must be several thousand descendants of the
historical Melungeons alive today, but the study only examined
unbroken male and female lines.
The origin of the word Melungeon is unknown, but there is no doubt it
was considered a slur by white residents in Appalachia who suspected
the families of being mixed race.
"It's sometimes embarrassing to see the lengths your ancestors went to
hide their African heritage, but look at the consequences" said Wayne
Winkler, past president of the Melungeon Heritage Association. "They
suffered anyway because of the suspicion."
source: http://news.yahoo.com/dna-study-seeks-origin-appalachias-melungeons-
The DNA study is ongoing as researchers continue to locate additional
Melungeon descendants.


NYC's Asian Population Grows, Spreads Out
Category: GENERAL
Tags: asian new york ethnic


NYC's Asian Population Grows, Spreads Out
New York City's Asian population is growing in both size and complexity, according to a report being released Friday, spreading out from traditional strongholds like Chinatown into neighborhoods all over the five boroughs and including ethnicities that weren't even big enough to be counted merely 10 years ago.
The Asian American Federation, a civic and advocacy group, analyzed data from the 2010 and 2000 U.S. census as well as the 2006-2010 American Community Survey.
The foundation's report found that the city's population of people identifying themselves as Asian, either monoracially or mixed, had gone up to 1.135 million, up more than 262,000, between 2000 and 2010, a 30 percent increase and the biggest percentage increase among the city's racial and ethnic groups.
Neighborhoods with concentrated Asian populations could be found all over the city, both in neighborhoods like Flushing in Queens, which has had a strong Asian presence for years, as well as newer neighborhoods like Sunset Park in Brooklyn.
Asians are likely to become the largest ethnic group in the borough sometime in the next decade.
The ethnic groups that make up the bulk of the community — including Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino — all continued to grow, as did ethnic groups that number under 10,000 people — like Thai, Indonesian, Sri Lankan, Cambodian. The census was even able to count small communities of Hmong, at 83 people. It also noted Bhutanese, at 388, who largely weren't even in the United States to be counted in the 2000 census, according to the report.
Copyright Associated Press


Juniques MultiCultural Connections connects with Glendale Jazz Festival Part 3
Category: GENERAL


Juniques MultiCultural Connections connects with Glendale Jazz Festival Part 3
Juniques MultiCultural Connections connects with Glendale Jazz Festival Part 3
The people of Arizona  and the Arizona weather were having a great time together. 
JMCC  community was enjoying some great sounds and people. There is a lot of 
great events happening around the valley. You definitely want to stay connected. 
Stay update with us at http://www.jusmcc.org


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